Exploring SharePoint REST API Endpoints


Overview


SharePoint, as a powerful collaboration and content management platform, offers a wealth of features and functionalities to users. One of the key capabilities of SharePoint is its REST API, which provides developers with a versatile and robust way to interact with SharePoint data and perform various operations programmatically. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll dive into the world of SharePoint REST API endpoints.


Exploring their functionality, usage, and potential applications.


  1. Understanding SharePoint REST API:
    • Overview of REST (Representational State Transfer) architecture.
    • Introduction to SharePoint REST API and its role in SharePoint development.
    • Benefits of using REST API for SharePoint integration and automation.
  2. Authentication and Authorization:
    • Explaining authentication methods supported by SharePoint REST API (e.g., OAuth, Azure AD).
    • Understanding authorization scopes and permissions required for accessing different endpoints.
  3. Core REST API Endpoints:
    • Site Endpoints: Interacting with SharePoint sites, site collections, and subsites.
    • List and Library Endpoints: CRUD operations for SharePoint lists and document libraries.
    • Item Endpoints: Managing individual items (list items, documents) within SharePoint lists and libraries.
    • User and Group Endpoints: Working with SharePoint users, groups, and permissions.
    • Search Endpoints: Performing search queries against SharePoint content.
  4. Advanced Functionality:
    • Metadata and Taxonomy Endpoints: Managing metadata, term stores, and taxonomy within SharePoint.
    • Workflow Endpoints: Interacting with SharePoint workflows programmatically.
    • Custom Endpoints: Creating custom REST endpoints using SharePoint Framework (SPFx) or server-side code.
  5. Practical Examples and Use Cases:
    • Integrating SharePoint data with external applications using REST API.
    • Automating common tasks such as document management, list updates, and user provisioning.
    • Building custom solutions and applications leveraging SharePoint REST API endpoints.
  6. Best Practices and Tips:
    • Optimizing REST API calls for performance and efficiency.
    • Handling errors and exceptions gracefully.
    • Implementing security best practices to protect SharePoint data.
  7. Resources and Further Learning:
    • Official SharePoint REST API documentation and references.
    • Community resources, blogs, and forums for SharePoint developers.
    • Sample code snippets and tutorials for common SharePoint REST API scenarios.

Rest API Endpoints


SharePoint REST API offers various endpoints that allow developers to interact with SharePoint data and perform operations programmatically. Below is a list of some commonly used SharePoint REST API endpoints:

  1. Site Endpoints:
    • Get Site: /sites/{site-id}
    • Get Site Collections: /_api/site
    • Get Subsites: /sites/{site-id}/_api/web/webs
  2. List and Library Endpoints:
    • Get Lists: /_api/web/lists
    • Get List Items: /_api/web/lists/getByTitle('{list-title}')/items
    • Add List Item: /_api/web/lists/getByTitle('{list-title}')/items
    • Update List Item: /_api/web/lists/getByTitle('{list-title}')/items({item-id})
    • Delete List Item: /_api/web/lists/getByTitle('{list-title}')/items({item-id})
  3. File and Folder Endpoints:
    • Get Files in Library: /_api/web/getFolderByServerRelativeUrl('{library-relative-url}')/files
    • Get Folders in Library: /_api/web/getFolderByServerRelativeUrl('{library-relative-url}')/folders
    • Get File by Path: /_api/web/getFileByServerRelativeUrl('{file-relative-url}')
    • Upload File: /_api/web/getFolderByServerRelativeUrl('{library-relative-url}')/files/add(overwrite=true)
  4. User and Group Endpoints:
    • Get Current User: /_api/web/currentuser
    • Get User by ID: /_api/web/getUserById({user-id})
    • Get Site Users: /sites/{site-id}/_api/web/siteusers
    • Get Site Groups: /sites/{site-id}/_api/web/sitegroups
  5. Search Endpoints:
    • Search: /_api/search/query
    • Keyword Query: /_api/search/query?querytext='{query}'
    • People Search: /_api/search/query?querytext='Department:{department-name}'
  6. Metadata and Taxonomy Endpoints:
    • Get Term Stores: /_api/SP.Taxonomy.TaxonomySession/getTaxonomySession(termStoreId)
    • Get Term Sets: /_api/SP.Taxonomy.TermStore/getTermSetsByName('{term-store-name}')
  7. Workflow Endpoints:
    • Get Workflows for List: /_api/web/lists/getByTitle('{list-title}')/workflows
    • Start Workflow: /_api/SP.WorkflowServices.WorkflowInstanceService/StartWorkflowOnListItemBySubscriptionId
  8. Search Query APIs:
    • Content Search: /_api/search/postquery
    • People Search: /_api/search/query?querytext='Department:{department-name}'

These are just a few examples of SharePoint REST API endpoints. Depending on your specific requirements and the version of SharePoint you’re using, there may be additional endpoints available. Refer to the official Microsoft documentation for comprehensive details on SharePoint REST API endpoints and their usage.


Sample Usage


Below is an example of how you can use JavaScript and AJAX to call a SharePoint REST API endpoint to retrieve data:

Let’s say we want to retrieve all items from a SharePoint list named “Tasks”. We’ll use JavaScript to make an AJAX request to the SharePoint REST API endpoint for that list.

HTML:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
    <title>Retrieve SharePoint List Items</title>
</head>
<body>
    <div id="output"></div>
    <script src="scripts.js"></script>
</body>
</html>

JavaScript (scripts.js):

document.addEventListener("DOMContentLoaded", function() {
    // SharePoint site URL
    var siteUrl = "https://your-sharepoint-site-url";

    // Name of the list to retrieve items from
    var listName = "Tasks";

    // Endpoint URL to retrieve list items
    var endpointUrl = siteUrl + "/_api/web/lists/getByTitle('" + listName + "')/items";

    // AJAX request to retrieve list items
    var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
    xhr.onreadystatechange = function() {
        if (xhr.readyState === XMLHttpRequest.DONE) {
            if (xhr.status === 200) {
                var response = JSON.parse(xhr.responseText);
                displayListItems(response.value);
            } else {
                console.error("Failed to retrieve list items. Error: " + xhr.status);
            }
        }
    };
    xhr.open("GET", endpointUrl, true);
    xhr.setRequestHeader("Accept", "application/json;odata=nometadata");
    xhr.send();
});

function displayListItems(items) {
    var outputDiv = document.getElementById("output");
    outputDiv.innerHTML = "<h2>List Items:</h2>";
    
    // Iterate through each item and display its title
    items.forEach(function(item) {
        outputDiv.innerHTML += "<p>" + item.Title + "</p>";
    });
}

This JavaScript code makes an AJAX GET request to the SharePoint REST API endpoint for the “Tasks” list, retrieves the list items, and then displays the title of each item in an HTML div with the id “output”.

Make sure to replace "https://your-sharepoint-site-url" with the URL of your SharePoint site. Additionally, ensure that the list name matches the name of the SharePoint list you want to retrieve items from.

Remember to handle errors and exceptions gracefully in your production code, and consider adding authentication if your SharePoint site requires it.


Conclusion


SharePoint REST API endpoints provide developers with a powerful toolkit for building custom solutions, integrating SharePoint with other systems, and automating business processes. By understanding the capabilities and usage of different endpoints, developers can unlock the full potential of SharePoint as a platform for collaboration and productivity. Whether you’re a seasoned SharePoint developer or just getting started, exploring and mastering SharePoint REST API endpoints can open up a world of possibilities for extending and enhancing SharePoint-based solutions.


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